In order to educate children in communicative literacy, verbal classes are taught to identify speech types. This knowledge will further help identify the character of the text under study, define its grammatical and vocabulary features as well as developing children's writing skills.
Types of speech in the Rusian language: what these are, species, and their characteristics
Texts with which a person meets on a daily basis differ in the character of the way he presents ideas, the way he considers objects and objects. They have different communication objectives and objectives. They differ in composition, presentation techniques. The systematization of these features allowed us to separate functional-semantic types of speech.
Let's go into detail about which types of speech occur, how to distinguish between them, and what purposes each species pursues. Let's start by noting that types and styles of speech are not to be confused. These are different concepts. Functional speech styles are a system of language forms and constructs that are used in texts that are directed at a specific area of use, such as business documents, fiction, domestic and scientific environments.
The type of speech assumes a certain manner of formation of the statement, the way of presentation. These types of language are distinguished in Russian: narrative, description, and reasoning. These communicative forms are found in almost every style of speech (there are some official-business-style restrictions).
Let us consider the specifics of each type of speech in more detail:
Stories about actions that an object performs or that occur with an object in a specific sequence are called narration. The key question this type of speech answers is what happened, when, and with whom? It is characterized by:
- occurrence or plot;
- consistent (chronological or linear) narratives of the course of events;
- logic and consistency of narrative;
- first-person or third-person narratives;
- a distinct composition distinguishing between tying up, developing events, climax, and denouement;
- predominant verb forms, and circumstances of the time.
The narrative is a story accurately told by the storyteller. It can be informative (interesting facts are given) or graphic (the emphasis is on the characters in the story).
The type of speech which describes the features of an object, phenomenon, or living creature is called a description. Its purpose is to characterize an object, so the description answers the question "which person or object"?
This type of speech has the following characteristics:
- a recreation of a powerful image of an object of reality through the word;
- enumeration of signs, traits, and particularities;
- static narratives;
- mostly used nouns and adjectives, imperfect verbs, composite names, and circumstances of the place.
The object of description may be: people, animals, plants, natural phenomena, terrain, interior, emotional states, etc.
The texts of this kind include:
- properties of states;
- landscape or interior sketches.
Description differs from other types of speech by composition. A text of this kind comprises three components:
- the general impression of a describing object, its purpose.
- Listing its main features and properties.
- An author's assessment of the described object.
The purpose of the description is to give the reader an idea of what is real.
The verbal description, explanation, and confirmation of thought, called reasoning. The author is trying to explain a certain vision of the problem to the reader, to develop his idea as fully as possible, to prove its validity, and to confirm it with facts or arguments. The reasoning text answers the question: why and why?
This type of speech may be distinguished by the following characteristics:
- its narration is based on causality: "it is, because";
- every judgment is given leads to new knowledge;
- reasoning (the presentation of evidence) is advanced;
- abstract vocabulary is dominant; hard-to-control sentences, circumstances of purpose, causes, effects, concessions, introductory words and constructs, and rhetorical shapes of speech abound.
The reasoning has a three-member composition: thesis, proof of the position (no less than three arguments), and summary (the result).
Depending on the purpose, reasoning can be: proof, explanation, or reflection. Texts often combine different types of speech: narrative includes elements of narrative, reasoning, and narrative elements. The information that will be presented helps to quickly recognize indicators for a particular type of speech, and knowledge about composition and verbal forms helps to accomplish the exact tasks of the vocabulary teacher.
Types of speech: examples
Speech types: examples Illustrations from fiction and periodicals will help to test the new knowledge about speech types, discern differences in the narrative, its features:
Example A on the outskirts of a remote Siberian village, a screaming boy cuts into grandmothers in the early days. Bags of books lie to one side. The famous Bear Bosonil, the stocky little one in a huge hat, is beating everyone. His bat, like a small shell, plucks five cubes from his horse at once. Bear plays with calm and confidence. Before he hits the ball, he takes off his right arm, peasant-style shrivels to the road, squints his left eye... takes aim... Everyone, holding their breath, is watching him mournfully. The bear takes a step... second... er-r-r-r-r-e! (Vasily Shukshin "Far Winter Nights").
A mouse was carried on a light pine boat. High waves were lashing around. The whole world was against him. The wind blew, like a boat, and the waves tossed the ship, as if they wanted to drown it in its dark depths. Beasts, birds, mugs, fish, everything was against him. The first to notice Peake was a great white gull. They swooped and swooped over the ship. They shouted with irritation that they couldn't finish off the mouse at once; they were scared to smash their beak against the hard bark from the start. A pike rose from the bottom of the river and followed after the ship as well. (Vitaly Bianchi, Shipwreck.)
The rose bush in which the rose blooms grew in a small semi-circular flower garden in front of the village house. The flowerbed was very neglected, and the weeds thickly grew over old, ground-up flowerbeds and the paths, which no one had cleaned or sprayed with sand for a long time. The timber grate had completely collapsed, dried out and fallen apart, and the country boys had pulled the spades out for the game of soldiers. In the far corner of the flower garden stood a rusting barrel filled with muddy rainwater. Nobody has used the barrel for a long time, as there was no one to water, and there is nothing. Children's swings, once fun and noisy, creaky and sad, were lamenting the wind. Nettles occupied the entire corner of the flower garden. It served as a backdrop for a gentle and luxurious rose flower. (By N. Garshin.)
There is only one not-quite-ordinary creature in the entire house: Carlson, who lives on the roof. Carlson is a small, fat, confident man, and he also knows how to fly. Everyone can fly planes and helicopters, but Carlson can fly by himself. Once he has just pressed a button on his stomach, it is immediately behind him that a clever motor begins to operate. For one minute, until the propeller spins properly, Carlson lives in a small rooftop house. (Astrid Lindgren-Carlson, who lives on a rooftop.)
Text reasoning: example
An example of text reasoning may help understand the peculiarity of a narrative of this kind: Why pretend to be a virtuous one or a believer? A person needs to feel appreciated, respected, approved and loved. He thinks he will be accepted by others only if he proves himself to be good.He believes that if he shows his weaknesses, he will lose people's respect and approval, so he cannot even acknowledge them to himself. At the deeper level of the psyche, a person's need for respect and approval is related to a need to feel that others recognize him as an individual. This need is pathological: the individual is no longer capable of feeling he or she is a person. His inner world is unstable, unstable, and dependent, so he is not self-sufficient and self-confident. Self-confidence can be based only on one's feelings and aptitude. (Juan Pablo Villanueva).
An example of the text's reasoning will give a sense of theses and their arguments - a key defining feature of these kinds of essays:
Reading is by far the most commonly used way of transmitting information, and book is its carrier. What is the benefit of reading, if any?
First, constant reading trains the brain. When you read, the way you perceive the world changes: you start fantasizing, creating certain kinds of book-like images (of places, people, events). Books improve memory, broaden horizons, change spelling, reading teaches you how to concentrate on a book, and by anything else, enhance the perseverance, mood.
Secondly, reading books increases your vocabulary and gives you a different way of thinking, so that thoughts are articulated and formulated easily. One can see for yourself: after reading a classic work, it is easier using words to express one's own thoughts; different parasites leave the vocabulary.
Reading is an integral process in the formative stages of becoming an adult. It starts early, accompanies the person to experience inner problems and spiritual growth. Literature saves depression; it sets morality and ideals. Books and reading make us human.
The most common texts are texts that combine different types of speech. It is therefore essential to know their meanings, compositions, vocabulary, and syntax features, in order to be able to readily recognize and rationalize their positions. This is a difficult question to address the theoretical descriptions and examples presented.